See below the conventions used in the process of entering data.


The font used to enter data in the Database (DB) is Gandhari Unicode. In case you copy and paste from another document, the font of the copied text has to be Unicode compatible.

General policy

Please follow the standard for word separation wherever possible; no hyphens should be used to indicate the components of compounds (e.g., ity uktam annaṃbhaṭṭaviracite tarkasaṃgrahe).

All records should be “diplomatic”, hence please also record

  1. avagrahas
  2. especially notable virāmas
  3. the use of anusvāra instead of class nasal
  4. doubling of consonants after r (e.g., sarvveṣu)
  5. daṇḍas

If ya and pa, va and ba, ta and na, etc., are not clearly distinguished by a scribe, they should be transliterated as (correctly) intended (e.g., ms.: anbapabyanireke bā → trslit.: anvayayatireke vā); otherwise no emendations should be made.

Not recorded are

  1. underlining and highlighting (with red powder, etc.)
  2. padas of stanzas (unless marked in the ms.)
  3. ornamental akṣaras


(NOT used for recording titles, authors, etc.)

  1. the diamond (◊) indicates a blank area / space smaller than the width of an akṣara
  2. a circle with a stroke (∅) indicates a blank area as wide as an akṣara; if the space is, e.g., three akṣaras wide, the circles are spaced: Ø Ø Ø (not: ØØØ)
  3. a large circle (○) indicates a string hole
  4. a circle with four rays (¤) indicates an ornamental sign
  5. a superscripted hyphen (¯) indicates that a scribe noted in this way (or by using dots, etc.) that he could not read an akṣara in his exemplar; e.g., ¯ ¯ ¯ (three akṣaras could not be read)
  6. a broken daṇḍa (¦) indicates a line-filling daṇḍa or a space-filling daṇḍa immediately before a string hole
  7. an asterisk (*) indicates the use of a virāma

Recording physical damage of a ms.

  1. the plus sign (+) indicates that a portion of the leaf where an akṣara may have been written is physically not present
  2. the superscripted plus sign (⁺) indicates that a portion of the leaf where part of an akṣara may have been written is physically not present
  3. three slashes /// indicate the breaking off of a line in a folio damaged in the margin
  4. example for the combination of the above: + + /// (a portion of the leaf where two full akṣaras may have been written is missing before the end of the line on a broken folio)

Recording corrections in a ms.

Please always follow the akṣara-principle, i.e., the point of reference is the full writing blocks (except in the case of unclear akṣaras).

  1. grey square brackets [] (grey 50%) indicate deletions, with the deleted text in grey; e.g., udā[ra]haraṇe (ra is deleted)
  2. grey pointed/angular brackets (< >) (grey 50%) indicate insertions: e.g., udāraṇe (ha is inserted)
  3. both grey square and pointed/angular brackets indicate corrections where one (part of an) akṣara is replaced by another one: e.g., udā[hā]raṇe (hā is corrected to read ha)
  4. akṣaras and parts of akṣaras whose reading is uncertain are enclosed in round brackets (): e.g., u(dāha)raṇe (the sequence consisting of dā and ha is not clearly legible); udāharaṇata(ḥ) (the visarga is not clearly legible or ambiguous)
  5. superscripted numerals (e.g., 2) indicate obviously secondary corrections (corrections by another hand): e.g., u2haraṇe (dā was inserted by another scribe or a proof-reader)
  6. examples for combinations of the above: udāha[r(e)]2ṇe (the akṣara re , with a hardly legible superscripted e, was corrected to ra by a second hand); udā([<(ha)raṇata(ḥ)>])sthite (an insertion, with the akṣara ha and the visarga not clearly legible, seems to have been deleted


Please specify the verso/recto side of the folio quoted, using “r” (recto, front side) and “v” (verso, back side) respectively, the foliation and the line; e.g.: tapaḥsvādhyāyanirataṃ {34v, line 4}; alternatively: 34v, line 4: tapaḥsvādhyāyanirataṃ

In photographs showing two leaves, the “upper” leaf shows the foliated verso side, the “lower”, i.e., not yet turned leaf the recto side of the next leaf.

Winged brackets are used to indicate line breaks; e.g., tapaḥsvādhyāya{4}nirataṃ (line three ends with svādhyāya)