Report of Project I

FWF Project P 17300 – GO3
“Philosophy and Medicine in Early Classical India”
(March 15th 2004 – July 31st 2007)

1. Manuscripts

Altogether 11 manuscripts (mss.) of the Vimānasthāna chapter of the Carakasaṃhitā, whose first critical edition was the focus of the Project, could be made accessible in the form of copies (digital images, photocopies, microfilms). Together with the material assembled during the preceding pilot project FWF Project P 14451-SPR (“Debate in the Context of the History of Indian Medicine: Dialectics and Logic in Early Indian Philosophy”), the total number of available textual witnesses thus amounts to 44. These mss. provide an unprecedented basis for text-critical work on an individual chapter of the Carakasaṃhitā (CS) (cf. Appendix 1 for the current list).
The copies of the additional mss. were mainly acquired during a trip to India conducted by the two project participants Maas and Prets (cf. 14 below) and through the good offices of the participants of FWF Project P 17244-G03 (directed by the author of this Report and applicant) during their two trips to India. The mss. are:

  1. The single Devanāgarī ms. of the CS preserved at the Asiatic Society, Kolkata (C6d).
  2. Two mss. written in Devanāgarī script preserved at the Bhogilal Leherchand Institute of Indology, Alipur (Ap1d and Ap2d). Ap1d is the oldest dated ms. which has become available to the Project (Sūtrasthāna dated Thursday, January 9th, 1592).
  3. One ms. in Devanāgarī script preserved at the B.J. Institute of Learning and Research, Ahmedabad (Abd).
  4. Three mss. in Devanāgarī script kept at the Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar (Jn1d, Jn2d [dated Sunday, May 17th, 1868], Jn3d), one of which is fragmentary (Jn2d). Because of technical problems, only the beginning and end of Jn3d (dated to 1868) are available in digital form.
  5. Three mss. from Jaipur, all written in Devanāgarī script (Jp1d, Jp2d [dated Wednesday, June 15th, 1757] Jp3d [dated to 1621/1622]) and kept in the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, City Palace, Jaipur.
  6. One Devanāgarī ms. of the Asiatic Society, Bombay (Bod) dated Thursday, February 4th, 1864.

Besides, a copy of an additional ms. of Cakrapāṇidatta’s commentary Āyurvedadīpikā owned by the Gujarat Ayurved University could be procured, as well as copies of quite a number of mss. of other parts of the CS and of the Āyurvedadīpikā from various Indian institutions (for sporadic reference to passages beyond the Vimānasthāna and for use in future projects focussing on other sthāna-s of the CS).

2. Survey of Mss. of the CS and „Concordance“

The voluminous survey of known mss. of the CS and its commentaries, correlated with the mss. available to the project or seen by project participants, which was compiled by Prets in the preceding project, was augmented, revised and completed. It contains (a) bibliographical and (b) basic descriptive data for 255 mss. in international collections. (a) The bibliographical information (catalogues, locally inspected hand-lists, etc.) for all relevant mss. is provided, if applicable with reference to Janert’s Annotated Bibliography of Catalogues of Indian Manuscripts and Biswas’s Bibliographic Survey of Indian Manuscript Catalogues, and correlated when a single ms. appears in more than one source. (b) The descriptive data for basic identification include script, extent, folio numbers and date (if any). On this basis, wherever possible a concordance of the mss. said to have been used for the printed editions, the mss. noted in the catalogues and hand-lists, and the mss. available to the Project (with their sigla) has been constructed. In some complicated cases, annotation has been provided. There are five major sections:

  • Mss. of the CS available to the project (110 items)
  • Mss. of the CS seen by project participants (also of FWF Project P14451-SPR) (27 items, among them 8 mss. containing the Vimānasthāna of which copies could not be acquired)
  • Further mss. of the CS
    • as listed in the New Catalogus Catalogorum (49 items, among them 5 mss. that in all probability contain the Vimānasthāna)
    • as listed in further sources (catalogues, hand-lists, introductions to printed editions, etc.) (24 items, among them 3 mss. of the Vimānasthāna)
  • Mss. of Cakrapāṇidatta’s Āyurvedadīpikā (36 items, 6 of them containing the Vimānasthāna and available to the Project)
  • Mss. of further commentaries on the CS (9 items, four of which are available to the Project but do not contain the Vimānasthāna)

The copies of mss. available for CS Vimānasthāna, other individual chapters of the CS, the CS as a whole, and commentaries on the work constitute a unique, internationally unsurpassed archive for textual research.

3. Collation

According to the work plan, Maas started the collation of Vimānasthāna chapters 1–4, with the only available ms. in Śāradā script kept in Pune (P1ś) and the Devanāgarī ms. J2d from Jammu which turned out to be a direct copy of P1ś. Because of Prets’s very slow progress in collating the available mss. on Vimānasthāna ch. 8 – he was still working with a focus on 8.1–26, the text portion chosen in the preceding project as the part to be fully collated and to serve as the basis for the development and precision of the stemmatic hypothesis – , it was decided that Maas would leave chs. 1–4, turn to ch. 8 and commence the collation of the second half of the text, sections 67 to 157; Prets continued with the collation of some mss. on 8.1–13 and 14–26 or portions thereof. From June onwards until the end of the year 2005, Pecchia, financed by work contracts granted by the research institution to counterbalance the effects of Prets’s protracted change to another project, collated the remaining mss. as well the additional ones made available to the Project (cf. above 1) for the first coherent section of the chapter (8.1–13) and commenced the necessary – also from the point of view of the conversion of the file into CTE-format (cf. below 5) – proof-reading of the collation work done by Prets for this part. The latter task was completed some five months after her joining the Project as a regular project participant, replacing Prets, in January 2006, Pecchia then took up the collation for 8.14–66 of 24 mss. that could be selected as relevant and informative from the stemmatic point of view on the basis of Maas’s comprehensive collation of 8.67–157 and his accompanying development of a detailed stemmatic hypothesis (cf. below 4). It was decided that the proof-reading of the already existing partial collation by Prets (for 8.14-26) would be too time-consuming and Pecchia start this work anew.
As of the time of this Report, the full collation of Vimānasthāna 8.67–157 (approximately half of the text of ch. 8) has been completed; the collation of the first half (full collation until 8.14; selective collation from 8.15–66) will be concluded by the end of December 2006. In the proof-read collation documents, the readings are already sorted according to similarities and degree of removal from the edited text by Trikamji, which serves as the basis of collation, to facilitate the joint work on the critical edition. To enable interested readers to follow the editorial decisions and check the stemmatic hypothesis, it was decided to present the full collation as sketched above in the Internet and add it to the printed critical edition in the form of a CD.

4. Stemma

Thanks to the effective collation work of Maas and his keen analysis based on 8.66-157, the provisional and – by comparison – rough stemmatic hypothesis built in the preceding project by Prets could be revised, refined and made much more precise in spite of the complicated patterns of contamination (cf. Appendix 2 for a diagram).
The large number of mss. not belonging to the Kashmir Group could be assigned to three big Groups, named G (Gauḍa), D (Doab) and R (Recension). Group G, i.e., the Bengali tradition, consists of 14 mss. which can be divided into two major groups, G11 and G12. G11 comprises 7 mss. written in Bengali script (C1b, C2b, C3b, C4b, V1b, V2b, V3b). C1b and C3b could be identified as direct copies of V1b and C2b. The closely related mss. V2b and V3b) seem to be the exemplars used by the editor of the first printed edition following the Bengali tradition of the CS, Gangadhara Kaviraj (cf. below 10). The second major group (G12) consists of 5 mss. written in Devanāgarī script (Ap1d, Ap2d, P3d, V5ad, V5bd). V5ad is a direct copy of V5bd that goes back to some difficult-to-read ms. in Bengali script (G23), which was clearly used as an additional source by the writer of C1b. Ap1d, the oldest dated ms. available to the Project, is contaminated by a ms. of Group R, whereas Ap2d is contaminated by mss. of Groups R and D. Ms. L2d, although written in Devanāgarī script, is without doubt copied from a Bengali-script ms. and preserves a considerable number of singular and original readings, often close to readings of ms. Cab – whose exact position within the G group has still to be determined – and the Kashmiri group.
Group D, consisting of nine Devanāgarī mss. (Abd, Bd, T2d; Kmd, P4d; Kd, V4d; Jn3d, L3d), reflects a tradition of the text as it seems to have been dominant in Varanasi and the larger Doab area, and can be divided into two major groups (D11 and D12), with two clearly distinguishable sub-groups each. Contamination coming from R in general and from sub-groups of G, even from K, can be discerned. Consequently, this Group has the most extensive text; besides, it transmits some obvious additions to the text that cannot be traced elsewhere. Group R consists of 8 mss. (Bod; Bid, Jn1d, L1d, T1d; Jp2d, Jp3d, T3d), again dividable into two major groups (R11 and R12) and one ms. (Bod) which stands by itself with some peculiar readings. Contamination has occurred with D and G, and in one case with K, and within the Group itself. Finally, the Kashmiri Group (K) comprises 11 Mss. (Chd, J1d, J2d, J3d, P1ś; Ad, C5b, C6d, Jp1d, P2d, Ud) in two major groups (K11 and K12). The K Group as a whole, and especially the only Śāradā ms. (P1ś, which was the exemplar of J2d) available to the Project, has preserved a large number of original readings as against the remainder of the textual tradition although here also contamination, with mss. of a major sub-tradition of Group G and with an early ms. of Group R, seems to have occurred. The precise position of ms. C5b, the only Bengali-script ms. of the Group, in sub-group K12 has still to be ascertained; a Devanāgarī ms. from Kolkata (C6d) could be identified as a direct copy of Ad. The presence of these two mss. in Kolkata may explain why some early printed editions published from Kolkata follow the Kashmiri tradition.

5. Development of Technical Tools and Method

After an in-depth evaluation, it was decided in October 2004 to continue the collational work (cf. above 3) and the work on the critical edition (cf. below 6), both so far done using Microsoft Word, not with LaTEX software (as originally planned), but to switch to the “Classical Text Editor” (CTE) instead, a highly sophisticated and appropriate software especially developed for critical editions of texts in Classical Philology. After the technical conversion of the Word files by Maas, he and Prets restructured the already existing collational data in CTE format. This change made it possible to present the numerous readings of the mss. in the form of lemmata repeated in an apparatus of variants and with reference to text sections and lines, instead of the simple footnote system of Word. As multiple apparatus are possible in CTE documents, additional apparatus for (1) secondary/independent testimonies (commentary, quotations, etc.), (2) readings in the printed editions, (3) the indication of page breaks in the mss., and (4) the list of specifically available mss. were set up. Further, the ms. sigla, including group sigla (which may contain further “smart groups”), are automatically administrated by the CTE in an ingenious way that greatly facilitates work, improves the clarity of presentation, reduces ambiguities and reduces the chance of error through an automatic positive apparatus control; consequently, a positive apparatus was introduced at this stage. Thanks to the kind cooperation of the designer of the CTE (Dr. Hagel, Commission for Ancient Literature, Austrian Academy of Sciences), many new features required for the sophisticated processing of Sanskrit text were introduced in the software, e.g., “smart compounds” which allow the isolation of individual words as lemmata out of nominal compounds, an automatic hyphenation program for Sanskrit, and wavy underlines to indicate uncertain readings (following the critical edition of the Mahābhārata).

6. The Critical Editions

Although team work on the critical edition, with the amount of variant readings reduced to those which provide a meaningful text in correct Sanskrit, constantly proceeded, it became more efficient and speedier once firmer ground was reached with the increasingly complete collation of Vimānasthāna 8.67-157 by Maas, accompanied by his development of the more precise stemmatic hypothesis. The final breakthrough came with the conclusion of Pecchia’s full collation and proof-reading for 8.1-13 in May 2006.
Already in October 2005, it was decided to prepare two critical editions in order to satisfy two different intended readerships, namely, (1) a critical edition and (2) a condensed critical edition. (1) The critical edition (CE) presents the critically edited text together with the variant readings of the four stemmatic traditions or Groups, their major groups and sub-groups. Peculiar variants of individual mss., which have to be judged as scribal mistakes, are eliminated here. In many cases, the CE thus records the reconstructed variant readings of the youngest common ancestor of mss. belonging to a certain Group, major group or sub-group. To document the evidence for and of larger stemmatic groups and sub-groups, not only secondary, but also clearly faulty readings are presented, if such can be reconstructed for the hypothetical exemplar to which the respective mss. go back. Individual faulty readings and faulty, but strikingly similar readings in mss. which are in all probability stemmatically separated from each other are also presented, especially if their origin cannot be explained from any of the other known readings; they may point to some not yet determined contamination, some not yet reconstructible, possibly original reading or a still unknown early source. This is rather frequently the case with readings of L2d, Cab and Bod, sometimes with V5bd. Further apparatuses present the secondary/independent testimonies to the text, the readings of the most important printed editions, and the places of page break in the mss. Endnotes contain text-critical notes, some of them extracted from the existing notes to the translation.
In a large number of cases, a more original text of Vimānasthāna compared with the accepted printed edition could already be established with reasonable certainty. Numerous additions to the text could be eliminated; they comprise certain formulaic expressions, additions of similar or contextually related items in long enumerations, explanatory or emphatic additions, and various additions clarifying the structure of the text. However, there are also cases of omission of text. Transpositions of text, to achieve more immediately intelligible expressions in the case of syntactical idiosyncrasies of the author (or the early redactors), could also be detected, as well as standardization of certain vocabulary items, replacement of uncommon words by others, introduction of regionally current terms, and the compounding of originally uncompounded nouns and vice versa. In a few cases, a more straightforward original text as found in some mss. could be established, as opposed to the accepted reading that obviously goes back to a corruption of the text, to a difficult-to-read exemplar, or to a new, more transparent text conjecturally established on the basis of the widely varying readings of the mss. Not infrequently, the accepted printed text cannot be found in any of the mss.; in these cases the editor has apparently modified the text.
The focussed work on the CE of ch. 8 proceeds according to the fully collated and proof-read portions of the text and will be concluded by the end of the Project.
(2) The condensed critical edition (CCE) continues the critical edition as established so far in the light of the stemmatic hypothesis. It only records the meaningful variant readings that could be considered as original, regardless of the stemmatic position of their testimonies, to present the variety of textual versions transmitted and to demonstrate the “pitfalls” of relying only on select mss. of the work to those readers who are less interested in the numerous (also clearly faulty) variant readings and details of the ms. transmission which are recorded in the CE. Further apparatuses will present the secondary testimonies and the readings of the printed editions. The CCE will be printed facing the annotated translation of the chapter.
Work on the CCE will follow the establishment of the CE in larger steps and will probably have covered half of the text of ch. 8 by the end of the Project.

7. Annotated Translation

Work by Preisendanz on the annotated translation initially preceded the establishment of the critical edition, then accompanied it and finally had to be revised with the progress in this area. The extensive annotation concerns philological and terminological aspects, and – inseparably connected with them – aspects of interpretation, synchronically as well as from the point of view of the history of epistemology and dialectics, and cultural history in general, with reference to other parts of the CS and to the most important other classical compendia, such as the Suśrutasaṃhitā, the Bhelasaṃhitā, the Kāśyapasaṃhitā, the Hārītasaṃhitā and the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, and early classical and classical philosophical literature. Earlier translations and interpretations of the text are considered and discussed. A structural, stratificatory analysis of the complete chapter has also been provided.
It is expected that the annotated translation will be available for a third or two fifth of ch. 8 by the end of the Project.

8. Glossary

A glossary presenting the results of the philological and terminological examinations of the text conducted in the notes to the translation has been compiled, following the progress of the work on the translation.

9. Chāyā

According to a special method designed by Preisendanz, the text of Vimānasthāna 8 as it is found and reflected in Cakrapāṇidatta’s Āyurvedadīpikā (Ā) thereupon is presented in a visually suggestive way, under consideration of its specific relation to the critically established text. This allows the reader (1) to see to what extent Ā provides evidence for its basic text, (2) to quickly discern the readings of Ā that have been preferred in the critical edition against the evidence of the available mss. of CS Vimānasthāna, (3) to see the readings of Ā that correspond to ms. readings which have been adopted (with certainty as well a with doubts) in the critical text, and (4) to determine quickly the readings of Ā that have been rejected for the critical edition, i.e., the readings that demonstrate that the text of the CS available to Cakrapāṇidatta in the 11th century followed a certain regional tradition related to the evidence of Group G, which by then had become corrupted by a number of errors, some of which have not been transmitted in any of the available mss.

10. Publication History of the CS

The annotated bibliography of 46 known printed editions of the CS, which was compiled by Prets following a trip to London towards the end of the preceding project, has been revised, updated and completed; the so far undocumented, alleged first edition of the work (Mumbai 1867) could be verified through a copy in the private library of Friedrich Weller (Leipzig). Next to bibliographical notes, the annotation contains a first rough classification of the majority of the seen 39 editions that could be surveyed from the point of view of their affiliation to the Kashmir recension or the “Eastern recension” of the text (i.e., the remainder of the tradition) which were already distinguished by Cordier in 1903 according to the criterion of the arrangement of chapters in the Cikitsāsthāna. A sub-classification of the editions belonging to the “Eastern recension” considers the arrangement of the topics of debate (and a few minor, but typical variant readings) according to the available mss. or to Gangadhara Kaviraj’s first edition of 1868. A chronological table provides a concise survey of these provisional results that were reached before the refinement and specification of the stemmatic hypothesis. It shows that some early, late nineteenth-century editions from Kolkata and the early editions from other parts of India (mainly Mumbai) until the 1930s follow the Kashmiri recension; the subsequent editions from Varanasi and Western India (Mumbai, Jamnagar, Ahmedabad) follow the “Eastern recension,” and almost exclusively in dependence on Gangadhara’s edition(s) as characterized above. The results of the more detailed and precise analysis of 19 select printed editions, whose collation by student assistants will be concluded by the end of January 2007, with a view to their affiliation to the four stemmatic Groups (cf. above 4) will lead to a more complete and reliable picture, which will then be considered (partially retrospectively) in the establishment of the critical text, with the transfer of (select) data into apparatus 2 of the CE and the CCE.

11. Conferences and Lectures, International Cooperations

Results of the Project were presented by the project director and participants in lectures at various institutions and at the workshop cum symposium „Classical Indian Medicine: Text and Meaning” co-organized by the Preisendanz at The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL (University College London) (November 3-6, 2004). The workshop cum symposium was attended by the international members of the “Classical Ayurveda Text Study Group” which was founded at a workshop in Vienna organised by Preisendanz and Prets in the context of the preceding project P14451-SPR; most members have joined a newly founded Study Group for South Asian Medicine which is a sub-group of the British Academy’s Society for South Asian Studies. At the time of this Report, a third meeting, a workshop cum conference, is being organised by Preisendanz which will take place from January 15-20, 2007, at the Shri Shankaracharya Sanskrit University, Kalady, Kerala. As before, the workshop will comprise the presentation and joint reading cum interpretation of classical Āyurvedic texts; the conference will include local speakers from the community of traditional scholars of Āyurveda in Kerala. Maas, Pecchia and Preisendanz will all present lectures at this occasion; there will also one or two reading sessions on select passages of CS Vimānasthāna ch. 8.

  1. “On the Conception of Disease (Vyādhi) in Classical Yoga Philosophy” [Maas]
    2. “The Initiation of the Medical Student according to the Carakasamhita” [Preisendanz]
  2. “On the Editions of the Carakasamhita” [Prets]
    (all at the workshop cum symposium “Classical Indian Medicine: Text and Meaning,” November 5-6, 2004)
  3. “Discussion and Debate in Early Indian Medicine,” Text and Translation Series of The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL, London (November 11, 2004) [Prets]
  4. “Philosopie und Medizin: Zur Bedeutung der Carakasaṃhitā für die Geschichte des frühen Nyāya,” Asien-Afrika-Institut, Universität Hamburg (June 14, 2004) [Preisendanz]
  5. “Philosopie und Medizin: Zur Bedeutung der Carakasaṃhitā für die Geschichte des frühen Nyāya,” Institut für Indologie und Zentralasienwissenschaften, Universität Leipzig (June 17, 2004) [Preisendanz]
  6. “Caraka zwischen Philosophie und Medizin,” Institut für Indische Philologie und Kunstgeschichte, Freie Universität Berlin (February 2, 2005) [Prets]
  7. “Zum mythologischen Ursprung und der heutigen Textgestalt der Carakasaṃhitā,” 2. Kasseler Āyurveda-Konferenz, Habichtswaldklinik, Kassel (September 16, 2005) [Prets]
  8. “Did Indian Logic Originate in the Āyurvedic Tradition?” Shri Shankaracharya Sanskrit University, Kalady, Kerala (February 17, 2006) [Preisendanz]
  9. “Zum Ursprung des Āyurveda: die Mythologien der großen Drei,” Institut für Indische Philologie und Kunstgeschichte, Freie Universität Berlin (February 13, 2006) [Prets]
  10. “The Importance of the Carakasaṃhitā for the History of Indian Philosophy,” Department of Indian Philosophy, Hiroshima University (March 24, 2006) [Prets]
  11. “On the Transmission of Classical Sanskrit Texts,” Department of Oriental Philosophy, Tokyo University (March 29, 2006) [Prets]
  12. Interviews for a radio series on Āyurveda (Ö1, May 15-18, 2006) [Preisendanz, Prets]

12. Project-Related Publications

  1. Ernst Prets, “Example and Exemplification in Early Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika.” In: Shoryu Katsura and Ernst Steinkellner (eds.), On the Role of the Example (dṛṣṭānta) in Classical Indian Logic. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde 58. Wien 2004: Arbeitskreis für Buddhistische Studien, 197-224.
  2. Ernst Prets, “Theories of Debate in the Context of Indian Medical History: Towards a Critical Edition of the Carakasaṃhitā.” In: Ram Karan Sharma (ed.), Encyclopedia of Indian Wisdom (Dr. Satya Vrat Shastri Festschrift), Delhi 2005: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, II, 394-403.
    1. Karin Preisendanz, “Human Genetics and Āyurveda: An Interview.” Satya Nilayam Journal of Intercultural Philosophy 7 (2005), 103-112.
    2. id., “Humangenetik und die Tradition des Āyurveda: Im Gespräch mit A. Amaladass.” polylog: Zeitschrift für interkulturelles Philosophieren 13 (2005), 65-71. (slightly revised translation of 3a).
  3. Karin Preisendanz, “On the Initiation and Training of the Medical Student in Classical India.” Forthcoming in: Birgit Kellner et al. (eds.), Ernst Steinkellner Felicitation Volume, Wien 2007: Arbeitskreis für Buddhistische Studien.
  4. Ernst Prets, “On the Proof Passage of the Carakasaṃhitā: Editions, Manuscripts and Commentaries.” Forthcoming in: Brendan Gillon (ed.), Proceedings of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference, Helsinki, Finland, 13-18 July, 2003, Vol. 11.2: Logic in Early India, Delhi 2007: Motilal Banarsidass.

13. Theses

Vitus Angermeier, Ursachen und Arten von Massensterben und ihre Gegenmaßnahmen in der Carakasaṃhitā (A study and annotated translation of Carakasaṃhitā Vimānasthāna ch. 3). M.A. Thesis, Universität Wien, 2006.

14. Research Travel

In February/March 2005, Maas and Prets visited a great number of institutions, including little known, but relevant ones, during their four-week trip to northern and western India (Delhi, Alipur, Vrindavan, Jaipur, Bikaner, Ahmedabad, Koba, Nadiad, Jamnagar). Photocopies or digital images could be obtained of eight immediately relevant mss. as well as of a number of other mss. of the CS and the Ā. They could establish good contacts and survey many collections and catalogues. Preisendanz visited Kerala in February 2006, gained relevant information about some mss. of the CS previously in private collections, and established important contacts with local institutions and scholars. In January/February 2007, Maas will travel for approximately four weeks to Southern India (Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Western India (Jamnagar, Jaipur) and Uttar Pradesh (Ahmedabad, Varanasi), to procure copies of relevant mss. known to exist there and to follow up the information on mss. obtained during the preceding trips. The major objective, however, will be the retrieval of at least one South Indian palm leaf ms., in order to take recourse to the extraordinary testimonial value of the South Indian ms. tradition in general.

Appendix 1

Mss. available for CS Vimānasthāna (sigla with CTE-codes)

Scripts: d devanāgarī, b bāṅglā, ś śāradā

Ad (101) Alwar 2498
Abd (136) Ahmedabad 758
Ap1d (102) Alipur 5283
Ap2d (137) Alipur 5527
Bd (103) Baroda 12489
Bid (104) Bikaner 1566
Bod (144) Bombay 172
C1b (105) Calcutta, National Library RDS 101
C2b (106) Calcutta, Sanskrit College 23
C3b (107) Calcutta, Sanskrit College 24
C4b (108) Calcutta, Asiatic Society G 4474/3
C5b (109) Calcutta, Asiatic Society G 2503/1
C6d (110) Calcutta, Asiatic Society G 4391
Cab (111) Cambridge Ms.R.15.85
Chd (112) Chandigarh 2315
J1d (113) Jammu 3266
J2d (114) Jammu 3209
J3d (115) Jammu 3330
Jn1d (138) Jamnagar GAS 103
Jn2d (139) Jamnagar GAS 105 (vi.1-5)
Jn3d (140) Jamnagar GAS 96 (only beginning and end)
Jp1d (141) Jaipur 2068
Jp2d (142) Jaipur 2069
Jp3d (143) Jaipur 2561
Kd (116) Kota 1563
Kmd (120) Kathmandu, NGMPP E-40553
L1d (117) London, India Office Library Skt. Ms 335
L2d (118) London, India Office Library Skt. Ms 881
L3d (119) London, India Office Library Skt. Ms 1445b
P1ś (121) Pune, BORI 555 of 1875-76
P2d (122) Pune, BORI 534 of 1891-95
P3d (123) Pune, BORI 925 of 1891-95
P4d (124) Pune, Anandashram
T1d (125) Tübingen 458
T2d (126) Tübingen 459
T3d (127) Tübingen 460 + 474
Ud (129) Udaipur 1474
V1b (130) Varanasi, Sarasvati Bhavan 44842
V2b (131) Varanasi, Sarasvati Bhavan 108824
V3b (132) Varanasi, Sarasvati Bhavan 108685
V4d (133) Varanasi, BHU C3688
V5ad (134) Varanasi, Sarasvati Bhavan 44870
V5bd (135) Varanasi, Sarasvati Bhavan 44870

Group sigla


D Abd, Bd, Jn3d, Kd, Kmd, L3d, P4d, T2d, V4d
D11 Abd, Bd, Kmd, P4d, T2d
D12 Kd, Jn3d, L3d, P4d, V4d
D21 Abd, Bd, T2d
D22 Kmd, P4d
D23 Kd, V4d
D24 Jn3d, L3d


G Ap1d, Ap2d, C1b, C2b, C3b, C4b, Cab, L2d, P3d, V1b, V2b, V3b, V5ad, V5bd
G11 C1b, C2b, C3b, C4b, V1b, V2b, V3b
G12 Ap1d, Ap2d, P3d, V5ad, V5bd
G22 V2b, V3b


K Ad, C5b, C6d, Chd, J1d, J2d, J3d, Jp1d, P1ś, P2d, Ud
K11 Chd, J1d, J2d, J3d, P1ś
K12 Ad, C5b, C6d, Jp1d, P2d, Ud
K21 J1d, J2d, J3d, P1ś
K31 J1d, J3d


R Bid, Bod, Jn1d, Jp2d, Jp3d, L1d, T1d, T3d
R11 Bid, Jn1d, L1d, T1d
R12 Jp2d, Jp3d, T3d

Appendix 2

A hypothetical stemma of Carakasaṃhitā, Vimānasthāna (November 14, 2007): Ed_1